Break down your topic into its most basic parts. You might revisit steps 1 and 2 as you proceed through step 3. That's ok-- remember, research is not a straight line from topic to paper, but a more iterative (or repetitive) movement through the steps.
Write your research question down. Identify the concepts in that question.
For example, if you're interested in the question "What are the economic, social, and health impacts of the slow food movement on the local community?", your key concepts are:
slow food movement
For each concept, make a list of keywords related to it. Use synonyms, and go back to your background research to find academic vocabulary and terms.
For example, with the slow food question above, you could use related terms like local food or financial implications instead of slow food and economic impact.
Scholarly arguments are different from regular arguments. They aren't just disagreements. Scholarly arguments are complex and generally focused on questions with many possible answers. What's important then is not that you "win" or "lose" a scholarly argument but that you make a persuasive case.
So how do you make a persuasive case? Well, you provide good enough evidence that a smart, reasonable, and skeptical reader will believe you're probably right. Finding information you can use as evidence is the objective of your research.